Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ Raymond Carver While this story is obviously about preference and generalizations related with visual deficiency, and about the storyteller being visually impaired too the more profound things throughout everyday life, one of the most charming parts to me included the connection between the storyteller and his significant other. The visit of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s companion, Robert, obviously drew out the uncertainties in the storyteller, about himself and about his relationship with his better half. One way we see this is he takes an exceptionally prolonged stretch of time, pages, showing how close his significant other and Robert are. At the point when she carries Robert into the house, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"She was radiating. She had this visually impaired man by his jacket sleeve.Ã¢â¬ Also, Robert says, Ã¢â¬Å"Do I look recognized, my dear?Ã¢â¬ And the storyteller includes, Ã¢â¬Å"...the daze man said to my wife.Ã¢â¬ While he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t by and large express that it upsets him, he is by all accounts inferring it. After supper, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"Robert and my significant other sat on the couch. I took the large chair.Ã¢â¬ Again, he simply expresses the realities, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really state that it disturbs him, however I trust it obviously does. Additionally, the storyteller plainly feels envious that she felt propelled to compose a sonnet about an encounter she had with Robert, since she possibly composes sonnets when something extremely significant occurs. His weakness compounds when she demonstrates additional regard for Robert. At a certain point, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"The dazzle man filled his ashtray and my significant other discharged it.Ã¢â¬ In the following passage, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"My spouse piled RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s plate with shape steak, scalloped potatoes, green beans.Ã¢â¬ somewhat later, she advises Robert to make himself agreeable. He answers, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m comfortable.Ã¢â¬ She says, Ã¢â¬Å"I need you to feel great in this house.Ã¢â¬ And he again answers, Ã¢â¬Å"I am comfortable.Ã¢â¬ She appears to give a considerable amount of additional regard for Robert. I accept the storyteller felt that Robert was encroaching upon what he felt was a private relationship. The history that his w... Free Essays on Cathedral By Raymond Carver Free Essays on Cathedral By Raymond Carver Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ Raymond Carver While this story is unmistakably about preference and generalizations related with visual deficiency, and about the storyteller being visually impaired too the more profound things throughout everyday life, one of the most interesting parts to me included the connection between the storyteller and his significant other. The visit of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s companion, Robert, unmistakably drew out the instabilities in the storyteller, about himself and about his relationship with his significant other. One way we see this is he takes an exceptionally lengthy timespan, pages, showing how close his better half and Robert are. At the point when she carries Robert into the house, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"She was radiating. She had this visually impaired man by his jacket sleeve.Ã¢â¬ Also, Robert says, Ã¢â¬Å"Do I look recognized, my dear?Ã¢â¬ And the storyteller includes, Ã¢â¬Å"...the dazzle man said to my wife.Ã¢â¬ While he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t by and large express that it upsets him, he is by all accounts suggesting it. After supper, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"Robert and my better half sat on the couch. I took the enormous chair.Ã¢â¬ Again, he only expresses the realities, and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really state that it annoys him, however I trust it plainly does. Additionally, the storyteller unmistakably feels envious that she felt motivated to compose a sonnet about an encounter she had with Robert, since she possibly composes sonnets when something extremely significant occurs. His frailty intensifies when she demonstrates additional thoughtfulness regarding Robert. At a certain point, the storyteller says, Ã¢â¬Å"The daze man filled his ashtray and my significant other exhausted it.Ã¢â¬ In the following section, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"My spouse stacked RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s plate with block steak, scalloped potatoes, green beans.Ã¢â¬ somewhat later, she advises Robert to make himself agreeable. He answers, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m comfortable.Ã¢â¬ She says, Ã¢â¬Å"I need you to feel great in this house.Ã¢â¬ And he again answers, Ã¢â¬Å"I am comfortable.Ã¢â¬ She appears to give a considerable amount of additional regard for Robert. I accept the storyteller felt that Robert was meddling with what he felt was a private relationship. The history that his w...
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The presentation of the exploration paper plainly gives the answer for Cross-Language Information Retrieval and that being utilized for picture in understanding remote languages.The creator proceeds to state that an archive can be spoken to utilizing arrangement of pictures that has been drawn from critical terms in the report itself and accordingly, as a result of this the record can be seen calm essentially all in all or partly.The examine obviously gives the prologue to CLIR. The analyst says that on the off chance that the previously mentioned procedure works, at that point there would be no prerequisite for, Translation as these pictures can be utilized for multi-lingual representation.Reduced reliance on vocabularies. No requirement for upkeep. No requirement for human interpretation. No requirement for PC based translation.The procedure would utilize pictures that are accessible on the web. The specialist at that point attempts to determine sub-sets of pictures of dialects. Th e point of the paper is to perceive how pictures can be utilized in report seeing, with the goal that all the above preferences can be profited by. The paper is a summed up inquire about investigating the accompanying areasWhether search terms and pictures are comparative in importance. Hypothesis advancement what the subject comprehend from the pictures. Pictures for language sub-sets. Examination into the utilizations in question. Examination into the pursuit classes of words and pictures returned.Research ContextThe inquire about setting takes the peruser through the whole pattern of CLIR, how the exploration began and how it has developed over the timeframe. CLIR itself is portrayed, characterized and clarified in various ways with the goal that the peruser can comprehend the profundity of it.Documents are accessible in various dialects and that requires the PC client to have at any rate a base comprehension of the language to understand it. Record portrayal has not been that co mpelling remembering archives that far specialized or that needs a more significant level of comprehension. CLIR is utilized inA multi-language search utilizing just one question language. Searchers comprehend the report however are not productive enough to question in the equivalent language.A individual who doesn't comprehend English can recover records in English by an inquiry in their own language or a language they comprehend. All the above focuses are reflected in investigate done by Grefenstette (1998a), Oard (2001), Sanderson and Clough (2002), Pirkola et al (2001), Scott McCarley and Roukos (1998).According to Rosch et al (1976) object categorisation is finished regarding a Ã¢â¬Ëbasic levelÃ¢â¬â¢ categorisation. The essential necessity for CLIR is the World Wide Web (Scott McCarley and Roukos (1998), Ballesteros and Croft (1998a) and Grefenstette (1998a)) and accessible on-line documentations.Some of the methodologies of CLIR are Document Translation, Query Translation (Dorr (1996), Resnik (1997), Hull (1998) and Fluhr et al (1998), Ballesteros and Croft (1998a)), Parallel Corpora (Scott McCarley and Roukos (1998)), Latent Semantic Indexing (Dumais et alÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996)). The analyst has adequately disclosed the various ways to deal with the CLIR clarifying the techniques received from the very beginning.The points of interest and the burdens are plainly disclosed utilizing references to Oard (1998), Scott McCarley and Roukos (1999). The tremendousness of pages (Google (2003)) makes ordering of archives in unknown dialects exceptionally hard to translate.Ã¢ CLIR with pictures expressed off with Sanderson and Clough (2002) look into requires no type of gisting to pass judgment on the precision of the returned thing in light of the fact that a relationship is got between the recovered picture and the looked text.The just zone that the analyst doesn't clarify is the sort of contrast in subject, styles and kinds of recuperation. So it is ambiguous in understanding the potential blunders or error that can emerge if these focuses are taken into account.Machine interpretation types (Hutchins and Somers (1992) and Somers (2003)) have been clarified; direct, move and interlingua alongside the restrictions (Leech et al (1989)) have likewise been clarified. Restrictions being in the region of speed ((Somers 2003) and (www.speechtechnology.com (2003)), vagueness (OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady et al (1996:270), (Hutchins and Somers (1992)).Context and Real World Knowledge (Somers (2003)), Problems with Lexicons (Reeder and Loehr (1998)), Not Translated Words (Reeder and Loehr (1998)), Unknown Proper Nouns (Ballesteros and Croft (1998a)), Compound Words (Hutchins and Somers (1992), Sheridan and Ballerini (1998)), New Words ((OÃ¢â¬â¢Grady (1997)), Document Context (Somers (2003)), Minority Languages (Somers (2003)), Babelfish (Hutchins and Somers (1992)) and Sub Languages (Somers (2003)) are on the whole all around clarified with models.
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Dhammapada - Essay Example He was conceived in the 6th century of a decision family in the Himalayan lower regions and named Siddhartha. He was raised in sovereignty where he was prepared to turn into a beneficiary of the realm after his dad. These trainings carried a ton of enduring to his life coming about to his break from delights and illustrious benefits. Siddhartha was not satisfied with the proceeded with training to turn into a ruler. Consequently, he got away from his illustrious home spending numerous days in the woods. His getaway depended set for find various methods for obtaining redemption from all anguish (Batchelor, 21). The Buddha had three fundamental points in his lessons, which included current human issues and their government assistance, great resurrection in the resulting life, and achievement of extreme high caliber. The last one is isolated into two sections, which incorporate setting up satisfaction and profound quality doesn't debilitate its essentialness in human felicity. These points show various manners by which man can leave in harmony with himself and his kindred men. As per the Buddha lessons, the psyche assumes a significant job in the improvement of astuteness in the brain. In the event that the brain isn't undaunted, insight never gets ideal for every one of the individuals who are not I favor of good instructing and solid confidence. Dhamma offers bearings explaining the real character of lifestyle and demonstrating the way that prompts freedom (Palihawadana, 44). The Buddha utilized various strategies and guidelines to delineate various approaches to torment opportunity. Kamma is a volitional activity springing from expectation and may show itself as discourse, deeds, contemplations, wants, and feelings. It helped the individuals in retaining the lessons by the Buddha. This is on the grounds that the willed procedures an individual acts in the way of his reality may maybe get overlooked, yet once performed they leave recollections in the psyche. These recollections are seeds that are fit for realization later on accepting states of aging. This is in connection with the
Saturday, May 30, 2020
HomeCollege prep3 Ways to Help Motivate Your Child to Go to CollegeThis page may contain affiliate links.Apr 29, 2019Most parents want their children to succeed and broaden the array of opportunities available to them in the future. It can often be challenging to motivate children to want to enroll in college or pursue a degree, especially when they dont see the immediate benefits. Here are a few ways to help motivate your child to go to college, obtain a higher education, and establish a viable career. Discuss Their Options Discuss your childs options with them to prevent them from feeling forced into decisions. They may prefer to travel abroad for a year or work locally until they enroll in school full time. Take into consideration your childs passions and interests, and then present different career paths that could be pursued with the help of appropriate degrees. Giving them the freedom to decide can make it easier for them to choose to attend college without feeling forced. Use Past Successes When it comes to discussing the future, your child may not have a lot of confidence in how much they think they can accomplish. To ensure that they believe in themselves and know what theyre capable of achieving academically, its important to remind them of their past successes. This can go a long way toward supplying the confidence needed to perform well on the admissions test required for getting into college and for subsequent tests later on in school. Graduate with Them If you never graduated from high school or college, theres no time like the present to enroll alongside your student. If you decide to go back to school, the example you set could be inspirational. Your child can derive moral support and learn determination from your efforts. The self-confidence you impart will be invaluable when your young scholar begins applying to various universities. There are different ways to study for your GED if you still need to get it. You can obtain books and guidelines or even hire a tutor. Graduate with your student, and visit college campuses together. The transition will feel less lonely and intimidating if youre doing it in tandem. Although every child is his or her own person, thoughtful and conscientious communication can influence the decisions each makes in life. Helping young people understand the benefits of attending a university can furnish them with a broadened outlook, and that perspective could have a significant impact on their future.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Sosksksoahsk sanakos I hate you! I love you You re mean You make me feel like a little girl! (Deadpool) Well I know why you re my friend (sense you asked me), it s because I can t ever get bored of you, sometimes it might hurt like it did tonight but I love talking to you and you re so amazing and funny and and fantastic, I might say some mean things, and do some mean things but it s just because... IM NOT A LEACH, I know I always stick around and I m sorry if that s inconvenient to you but I just can t stop, I can t say we make each other whole because you re already pretty whole and we re like opposite people, but I m still not being able to get over your sense of humor, your laugh, your gorgeous blue/gray eyes, and everything about you... I know you show affection by saying you hate me or by calling me names I get it, it s just hard to get used to you re one confusing girl! I ve been by your side consistently for 10 months now, you can tell me anything and I m always here for you and I m not even getting bored, I m writing this like a love note, (it s not one) but I m just saying h ow much you mean to me, this is why you re my friend, I don t know why I m still you re friend because I m an annoying asshole, but most the time I m just trying to connect or talk, or get you mad because you re funny and cute when you re a lil ticked Ã¯Ëâ idk and I guess you said you don t know why I m still your friend, that s your choice,Vince mad me so mad,Show MoreRelated I Hate Narrative Essays1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages I stared at the blinking cursor, unbelieving at what I had just done. I was indeed done; done with a paper I agonized over for 6 hours. The paper was due in a scant 4 hours and I had all week to do it. The radio had stopped working because my brother got on the Internet and thus cut off my connection. That was the least of my problems working on this paper. I got it done, though. My life changed with one trip of a teacher to the chalkboard and one phrase, narrative essay. God, I hate narrativeRead MoreThe Movie Bruce Almighty 906 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬ From a personal point of view, the characters are symbolic and bear theological significance. The movie is didactic in quality and carries some tinge of comedy with apparent glimpses of domestic and familial environment. It reflects personality and character issues and parallels historic and biblical narratives that point toward a theological understanding of who the characters are and, why they exist. The scenes chiefly lean t oward the auteurÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s personal ideals andRead MoreAn Analysis of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn Analysis of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas In the autobiography Frederick Douglass presents a clear picture to me of a horrifying period of American history that far too few people understand. DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢s personal narrative as a slave lets you feel the fear of his past and allows us to experience the suffering and pain inflicted by underserved beatings and an unhealthy lifestyle with too much physical exertion. Douglass expresses very personal feelings about his history andRead MoreEssay On Far-Right1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe conservative far-right confronting the more liberal centrist/leftist factions happened in November of 2016 when the Americans had to choose a president between a conservative candidate whose platform was deeply rooted in xenophobia, tolerance of hate speech and misogyny, and a more moderate candidate whose platform was based around maintaining the legacy of the previous administration while securing the rights of the disadvantaged. While some countries that also faced this decision, such as Fra nceRead MoreOutline and Assess the Use of Experiments in Social Psychology Drawing on the Cognitive Social Perspective and Phenomenological Perspective1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages In this essay I have been asked to outline and assess the use of experiments in social psychology. For the last century scholars have often questioned what actually is social psychology, and many answers can be found, however the general consensus of social psychologists is that it is the science of the socially structured mind. Prof Haslam (2006) stated Ã¢â¬Å"For me as a social psychologist, the issue is how is Ã¢â¬Ëthe mindÃ¢â¬â¢, how are our thoughts structured by society?Ã¢â¬ Furthermore I will draw on twoRead MoreInspire, The, And Inspire The Believers Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Islam prohibits discrimination,Ã¢â¬ he writes, and invites African Americans to join. Addressing the African American directly, he state states Ã¢â¬Å"Qaidatul Jihad and the entire Muslim Ummah are against the oppression and injustices directed against you,Ã¢â¬ before urging the assassination of Ã¢â¬Å"racist politicians.Ã¢â¬ The magazine praises Osama bin Laden and others other al-Qaeda leaders whose words provide denunciations of Western culture and justification for terror attacks as a moral obligation in reactionRead MoreI Hate Children s Theater1056 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI hate childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s theater! I despise the term, and yet I love creating work for children. Calling my practice ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s theater limits possibilities, as many consider this field of performance more educational rather than holding high artistic merits, which leaves me frustrated. I am an artist, not a schoolteacher, and have seen work for young audiences from all over the world with the highest artistic quality; an aesthetic I strive to achieve. This perspective can be a challenge to express whenRead MorePersonal Reflection1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis past semester was a successful one, where I learned a lot about proper writing. I came into the course with a basic understanding of writing academic papers, and left w ith a good understanding. Throughout the course I became better prepared to meet General Education Student Outlines, and it was evident while revising my first project, the personal narrative. The first objective was Ã¢â¬Å"Students will identify and apply multiple approaches to the study of language, usage, grammar, diction, and styleRead MoreNarrative Essay1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNarrative Essays: To Tell a Story There are four types of essays: Exposition - gives information about various topics to the reader. Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one personÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete theRead MoreAnalysis Of Brent Staples Black Men And Public Space 1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinto thinking he is committing a crime, but eventually reveals how the actions taken towards him are because of the fear linked to his labeled stereotypes of being rapists, gangsters, and muggers. Brent Staples opened a door for discussion, why do we hate those we don t understand? It doesn t help the leader of the free world tweets leisurely while there s more pressing matters to attend to like immigration, DACA, or the senseless kills of innocence with no basis other than the color of skin. My
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Free Persuasives: Media Bias in the Stem Cel Essay l Debate stem argumentative persuasive Media Bias in the Stem Cell Debate One Source Cited In June of last year Newsweek Magazine presented on its cover an obvious example of partiality and bias in its presentation of the stem cell debate. ) Its perfectly fair and reasonable for Newsweek to use the image. We would note only that it is unimaginable that Newsweek would use an image that loaded in the opposite direction. A story on abortion would be much more likely to be illustrated with a coat-hanger than a sonogram of a five-month-old fetus. (Let alone a dismembered fetus. ) The stories inside the magazine are exactly what youd expect, given the cover. Proponents of stem-cell research get to make their case at length. Opponents are quoted too: They get exactly two words (eleven letters) in. And that quote is immediately rebutted, unlike any of the pro-research quotes. Heres how the piece concludes: Not funding stem-cell research would amount to squelching what is, more than anything, a quest for knowledge. We simply dont know how embryonic cells might help people who are suffering and dying today. By banning the research, we uphold the most extreme view of the sanctity of life, but at a price: foreclosing the possibility of doing all we can to improve the lot of the living. Set aside that bit about extremism. Any research, including research on humans that most people would find objectionable, can legitimately be described as a quest for knowledge. And the reference to the living skates right by the actual subject of the dispute-whether the embryos are in fact living human beings. (Theyre not dead, and theyre not inanimate.) Next come three pages on the politics of the research from Evan Thomas and Eleanor Clift. Subhead: The president is trapped between religion and science over stem cells. Heres a flavor of what the article is like: Pure politics helps explain why the White House has long been expected to ban federal funding for research on stem cells extracted from human embryos. . . . And yet Bush is clearly discovering that the politics and ethics of stem-cell research are more complicated than a simple no from the federal government. By a 3-1 margin, the public wants to go forward with research that has the potential to provide magical cures for a host of neurological and other diseases. The article concludes with some helpful suggestions on how President Bush can betray stem-cell opponents without suffering too much political damage. Finally, a note of fairness: The magazines religion correspondent, Kenneth Woodward, has a short piece on the ethics of stem-cell research that doesnt have a conclusion to pound us over the head with. WORKS CITED: Newsweek. http://www.msnbc.com/news/NW-front_Front.asp
Friday, April 17, 2020
Introduction Traditionally, construction of a given facility is largely based on two dimensional architectural plans. In the past, there were a myriad of challenges that accompanied this kind of construction. With the rapid growth in the construction industry, there have emerged systems that make the process of construction fast and efficient.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Integrating Building Information Management (BIM) into Construction Supply Chain Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of the processes that were made part of the construction industry include building information modelling (BIM). Adoption of the process in the mainstream construction supply chain management has improved the industry. The current paper revolves around this adoption. The writer starts by putting construction supply chain management into perspective. Construction Supply Chain Management Numerous suggestions are put forward in attempts to define the concept Ã¢â¬Ëconstruction supply chain managementÃ¢â¬â¢ (herein referred to as CSCM). Bennet (2011, p. 34), for instance, opines that the concept describes a venture that aims at maximising the utilisation of all aspects related to supply and manufacturing in the correct quantity. In the same vein, Hardin (2009, p. 69) defines construction supply chain management as a series of events in an organisation. The events are part of the whole production process, starting with the inception of the facility and all materials involved, to the end users and products delivered at the last phase. Harden attempts to describe the concept as the process that brings together the construction personnel, as well as direct and indirect stakeholders involved in the chain.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Different constructors like Hardin (2009, p. 47) opine that several factors are involved up the whole process of construction supply chain management in the field of construction. The initial stage involves the desire of the client to initiate a structure. Various orders follow suit in an attempt to meet the needs of the client. The orders include design, construction, maintenance, repair and, finally, demolition of the facility. In the current competitive world, construction, as a market, has increased considerably. A lot of challenges have emerged in attempts to cope with the rising demand for construction services. Bennet (2011, p. 29) contends that there is need to incorporate various factors in the field of construction. The construction process includes the integration of building information management into supply management. Building Information Modelling According to Eastman (2011, p. 14), BIM is a scenario that encompasses the virtual representation of physical information. The process comprises of all functions in a given facility, from conception to the last phase of the lifecycle. BIM is used by many stakeholders in the construction industry as a source of knowledge to make decisions regarding the performance of the facility during its entire life cycle. Eastman (2011, p. 30) opines that, traditionally, physical and functional representation was achieved through two-dimensional planning. As such, it was difficult to come up with various validation activities, making construction a tedious and challenging venture, especially when erecting complex structures.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Integrating Building Information Management (BIM) into Construction Supply Chain Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, with the introduction of BIM, the construction activities can go beyond the three dimensional planning. Before elaborating much on the use of BIM, the author of this paper will describe the concept o f construction supply chain management in general. The author will highlight the impacts of technology on construction supply chain management. Various aspects of the same will also be put into perspective. Use of Technology in Construction Supply Chain Management Many researchers agree that the impacts of technology on the construction supply chain management are remarkable. Cooperation Research Centre for Construction and Innovation [CRC] 2007, p. 59) supports these sentiments by contending that the value of technology has reduced the number of cycles involved in the construction process. Ã¢â¬Å"IntegrationÃ¢â¬ is an important phrase in this concept. To this end, such scholars as Bryrd Turner (2011, pp. 170-73) concur that the process requires the merging of a multitude of operations to achieve the intended outcome as far as construction supply chain management is concerned. As aforementioned in this paper, competition poses a challenge to this industry, especially if the corr ect channels are omitted from inception to demolition stage. As suggested by Bryrd Turner (2011, p. 74), technology is an added advantage in the construction industry. It is a strategy that can see the industry through a competitive world (Eastman Teicholz 2008).Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mismanagement of materials poses a threat to the entire process of implementing the actual project. CRC (2007, p. 61) argues that the whole process brings together a number of participants, each carrying out different activities aimed at achieving the end goal. As such, complex interactions, as well as interfaces, are experienced in the entire project. Bryrd Turner (2011, p. 169) appreciates the complexity of the construction process and recommends for integration, as opposed to carrying out the process independently. Carrying out the process independently will render the whole construction undertaking inefficient. With regard to technology itself, Al-Mudimigh Ahmed (2004, pp. 309-311) argue that the gap between the construction process and supply chain management is wide. The reason is the large number of stakeholders that play a role throughout the process. They termed the phenomenon as a form of deficiency in supply chain management, which affects the industry, especially in th e modern era. Deficiencies in Supply Chain Management The environment within which the construction projects are implemented keeps changing with regard to supply chain management. In addition, clients need extra unique services to meet their targets and to remain influential in their operations. The process is characterised by information gaps as the project advances (Dean 2007, p. 88). According to Jernigan (2007, p.103), the tools used in construction are limited to the Ã¢â¬Ëdistribution natureÃ¢â¬â¢ of the operations. Recent developments have seen the introduction of various gadgets perceived to solve major problems in the construction industry. One of the new developments in the industry is the introduction of BIM, which was mentioned earlier in this paper. The author will now focus on BIM as an instrument used in improving construction supply chain management processes. Benefits of BIM to the Overall Executive Manager The CSCM process is faced with a lot of challenges due t o the Ã¢â¬ËdistributionÃ¢â¬â¢ nature of its processes. Technological interventions to solve the stagnation of the process are required. BIM, as a technological tool, has solved various issues as far as CSCM is concerned. In his book Building Information Modelling, Dean (2007, p. 106) argues that with the help of BIM, all activities pertaining to CSCM flow efficiently. The integration of the system into the mainstream construction process is highly celebrated by stakeholders in the industry. For instance, in the past, the industry was struggling to promote the use of two and three dimensional plans. However, with technological innovation, constructions can move from one dimensional plan to the other with ease (Eastman 2011, p. 58). In the past, detecting clashes within the CSCM posed a challenge to the engineers. With the introduction of BIM, effective teams are modelled and made part of the supply chain. Complex designs are tackled with ease. The concepts of a given construction are presented in a digital form. Levy (2011, pp. 309-310) describes the process as a Ã¢â¬Ëvirtual representation of designÃ¢â¬â¢. It is at this point that possible challenges are analysed before the project is implemented (Woo 2006). BIM is preferred for its ability to limit expenses incurred by the client, especially with regard to those activities that do not add value to the process. Druck (2011, p. 104) opines that integration of BIM into the process helps by maximising production. It is argued that the success of a supply chain is determined by the value of production. In this case, production capacity is acknowledged in construction cycles (Leite 2011, pp. 605-606). According to Leite (2011, pp. 607-608), BIM provides the constructors with an avenue to exploit the contents of the design itself. The exploitation helps in distributing supply chain processes throughout the entire construction. For instance, tendering and procurement are effectively managed with the use BIM t echnology. BIM provides the clients with adequate information as far as costs are concerned. Clients demand for updated information, as well as accountability, throughout the whole project. BIM provides stakeholders with an avenue to track down all the procured items by ensuring that all processes follow a laid down order without deviating from the norm (Levy 2011, p. 318). With the help of a virtual model of the project, clients can make conclusions and determine the approach to be adopted in the whole process. Project Control According to Jernigan (2007, p. 81), project control encompasses the utilisation of resources to accomplish given goals. Generally, a project is a short- lived process, which is described by Jernigan as time-constrained. As such, operations during the construction period are handled carefully to meet the required targets. The difference between construction projects and other forms of business is the temporal nature of the former. In this case, special consid erations are made with regard to the use of BIM in an attempt to analyse the process. In practice, the use of BIM ensures all the resources procured at various stages are utilised according to plan. To this end, effective management strategies are paramount to enhance the quality of the whole process. However, the constrained nature of the project is a challenge to the managers in the sense that there are stipulated goals that need to be achieved. According to Yezioro (2008, pp. 612-6130), there are three major project control requirements. The requirements touch on the scope, time schedule, and the allocated resources with regard to the project. All these factors call for a controlled project operation. As far as BIM is concerned, project control is achieved by establishing a Ã¢â¬ËharmonisticÃ¢â¬â¢ environment that guarantees effective cost management. Project control indicates the costs incurred at various stages of the construction process. The project control accounts for al l activities accomplished. It helps in highlighting any possible unwanted costs that may be incurred (Kymmell 2008, p. 18). Another important aspect in project control is the use of multiple accounting systems (Kiziltas Leite 2009, p. 62). The systems are used together to avoid additional data between the processes. The use of multiple accounting systems minimises time wastage and helps in the elimination of minor errors. Yezioro (2008, p. 91) opines that project control is a very fundamental procedure in the CSCM. A lot of information is gathered in a construction site, which is important in managing daily activities on the site. Information gathered touches on amount of hours worked and nature of equipments needed on the site. Production analysis and project control are important to avoid wastage of material and time. There are other areas in the construction process that benefit from project control. They include time management, accounting, and resource tracking. Cost Reduction in CSCM using BIM Many clients and construction personnel appreciate the importance of BIM in averting over- expenditure in all phases of the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s life cycle. Experts in construction management like Weygant (2011, p. 109) opine that the reason why information is integrated into the construction process is to establish a platform that allows for the effective management of life cycle costs. With the use of BIM platform, Weygant agrees that all information contained in the virtual system is utilised to the maximum. It helps to avoid unnecessary expenditure during the entire cycle of the project. According to CRC (2007, p. 118), innovation related to the establishment of BIM in the construction industry has led to significant reduction in costs. For instance, energy costs and swift maintenance response are calculated to make sure unnecessary expenditures are avoided. Under normal circumstances, risk management calls for preparedness. However, with the use of BIM, disastrou s risks are analysed in the virtual system and potential sources minimised. Challenges Associated with the Use of BIM There are several challenges experienced when BIM is used. The author of this paper acknowledges the increasing popularity of BIM with regard to its use in CSCM across the market. Technology needed to support the use of BIM is rapidly growing, making the innovation more popular. However, in spite of all this, several challenges have befallen the use of BIM. For instance, such scholars as Krygiel (2008, p. 71) identify three categories of technical challenges associated with the use of BIM. The first revolves around interoperability. To this end, Krygiel (2008) is of the view that the use of BIM is not extensive enough to generate defined data. It leads to stagnation or errors in the process. The other challenge as explained by Kymmell (2008, p. 11) revolves around the need to optimise project control and allocate inputs to meet the stipulated objectives. Some inputs will address the needs of various stages ineffectively, leading to stagnation of processes. Project control helps by summarising all sequences to avoid stagnation. Another major challenge experienced when using BIM is the inability to compute digital or virtual data generated. Inability to compute such data has created a myriad of problems, leading to over-expenditure or deviation from the designed objectives as far as the project cycle is concerned (Krygiel 2008, p. 119). Integration of BIM into the Construction Project Life Cycle Integration of BIM into the construction project cycle is a fundamental aspect in the construction industry. According to Smith (2009, p. 201), the integration has allowed for a transitional process that has seen the reduction in the number of challenges encountered in the industry. In the past, information from the architect, such as digital data, was not shared with the contractors. As a result, a lot of discrepancies were noted throughout the stages. A pplication of BIM in delivering and presenting data in various stages has created a concession between different stakeholders. The development is unlike in the early years when each stage was implemented independently. According to Underwood (2009, p. 93), integration creates a link between the processes associated with initiation of information, assessing, and simulation. The life cycle of CSCM contains a wealth of information that is correctly managed with the application of BIM software. Various models are evident in the construction lifecycle. They include, among others, design, production, commissioning, operational, and demolition models. Each model provides guidelines that help in taking the project from one phase to the other. Smith (2009, p.183) affirms that design model is conceptualised in such a way that it takes the project into the production model. On its part, the building model is linked to all operations pertaining to maintenance. Up to this point, the writer has n oted several aspects related to the adoption of BIM in the construction industry. The writer has explained the importance of adopting the BIM software in all life cycles. All the cycles in the life of the project are related to each other. Discussion and Conclusions The adoption of BIM with regard to CSCM is gaining ground in the construction industry. The use of BIM enhances the management of projects in the construction industry. Adopting BIM in the industry has improved the efficiency of all the operations in the lifecycle. In addition, the adoption allows for predictability as far as the future of the project is concerned. Predictability helps in identifying potential challenges, all the way from the design stage to the demolition stage (Kymmell 2008, p. 139). The use of BIM enhances cooperation among stakeholders at all stages of the CSCM. Effective collaboration in the lifecycle of the construction project improves time management, increases profits, helps in cost reduction, a nd strengthens relationships between different parties. The adoption and use of BIM technology can prove problematic in cases where data ownership is in dispute. For instance, data created using BIM is highly disputed with regard to the actual owner of the design. It can extend to disputes over property, a phenomenon that is mainly associated with BIM. The use of BIM has created a paradigm shift in the CSCM arena. The shift has encouraged the participation of all stakeholders from inception to demolition stage. The participation has created an environment conducive for all individuals working at different stages of the process. In the past, different stakeholders had their roles misplaced. In addition, it was hard to specify the roles of all stakeholders involved at the various stages of the project. Lack of specificity led to role conflicts in the industry. Before the introduction of BIM, it was difficult to share information between the contractors, especially during the initial s tages of project implementation. Information generated by the digital architects and the contractors was not shared with other stakeholders, posing a challenge to the entire cycle. Errors were made, reducing the performance of construction workers. Sharing of information has increased the success of CSCM processes, thanks to BIM. 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